Just found this hella interesting…Hope you educated folks out there understand Journal Critiques 🙂
Spurgeon, S.L. (2009). Wellness and college type in African American male college students:
An examination of differences. Journal of College Counseling. 12 (1), 33-43.
The purpose of this study was to compare the wellness of African American male students attending predominately White universities (PWI) with those students attending historically Black universities (HBCU); and to find significantly higher measures of wellness from students at HBCUs.
Rationale of Study
Using the Myers Wheel of Wellness, the researcher would measure 17 factors contributing to wellness, including spirituality, friendship and sense of worth. Spurgeon is looking to prove that an African American male student has higher measures of wellness at an HBCU because the factors of wellness are more catered to the African American student there. Additionally, variables such as racism, social adjustment, and isolation would not be working against the overall wellness of the student, whereas at a PWI, the student would encounter those variables daily.
Participants from two mid-sized Southeastern Universities, one PWI, one HBCU were gathered; using only juniors and seniors 400 questionnaires were given out and 245 were completed (HBCU n=103, PWI n=100, and 32 were excluded due to being incomplete). The questionnaire packet consisted of a demographic survey, and the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL).
HBCU students scored lower than PWI students on sense of worth, but higher on the following factors: friendship, love, sense of control, and gender identity. Overall, though, there was no significant difference in total wellness between students at HBCUs and PWIs. Total Wellness HBCU: mean=73.48 sd=6.12, PWI: mean=72.77, sd=7.53.
The research suggests that in the population of familiarity found at an HBCU, the African American male may develop different parts of his personality; thus the potential rationale for higher measures of friendships, love, sense of control and gender identity. Therefore, when counseling an African American male at a PWI, who may be experiencing feelings of isolation, loneliness, or even racism, encourage him to get involved in Black student organizations to build up a stronger since of identity. If counseling an African American male at an HBCU, perhaps work to help him develop the parts of himself that make him unique and set him apart from the thousands of other students who look like him, strengthening his sense of self worth. A culturally competent counselor who understands the challenges of his or her minority students will be able to use university resources to aid the client. It is important for counseling programs to, when teaching cultural competence, train the counselors to explore the potential wellness risks of the different populations of students on campus. Moreover, counselors in training should learn the challenges of those populations, and possible resources to help them. These resources could be the difference between positive and negative ego development and self actualization.